Early Health, Education & Nutrition can drive Better Outcomes

Early Health, Education prevent Chronic Diseases

Source: The Heckman Equation


(a policy report focused on child health in the USA)

Source: IHME


(our most recent work on child mortality – a research paper, so not really focused for lay persons)

Source: IHME and The Lancet

Issues International National
Child Population 1.9 billion children are there in the world which is 27% of world’s population[1]. In India, there are 444.1 million children which is 36% of the total (1.21 billion) Indian population.[2]

India has largest child population in the world.[3]

Infant Mortality Rate In 2015, 75% of all (4.5 million) under-five deaths occurred within the first year of life.[4]

The risk of a child dying before completing the first year of age was highest in the WHO African Region (55 per 1000 live births), over five times higher than that in the WHO European Region (10 per 1000 live births).

On an average, globally 4.5 million infants die annually.[5]

40.5 Infants (child less than one year of age) die out of 1,000 live births out of which 39.2 are males and 41.8 are girls (2016 est.)

This rate is often used as an indicator for the level of health in a country.[6]

Maternal Mortality Rate Every day, approximately 830 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.[7]

Every minute we are losing a mother due to child birth complications.

99% of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Most of the maternal deaths take place in Young adolescent girls.

Currently, maternal mortality ratio worldwide is 216. However, the Sustainable Development Agenda targets to reduce it to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.

174 child-bearing women out of 1000 die due to child birth complications.

India contributes one-fifth (20%) of the total global death of pregnant women every day.[8]

Death due to disease 21 children (under the age of five) die each minute every day (about 29,000)

More than 70% (almost 11 million) child deaths every year take place due to diarrhoea, malaria, neonatal infection, pneumonia, preterm delivery, or lack of oxygen at birth[9]

Globally, an estimated 2,000 children under the age of five die every day from diarrhoeal diseases and of these some 1,800 deaths are linked to water, sanitation and hygiene.[10]

Despite India stands out for the prevalence of diarrhea as a killer of infants, Diarrhea was responsible for 13% of child deaths in India in 2010

The World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics for 2015 give an estimated incidence figure of 2.2 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9.6 million.[11]

Almost every fourth TB patient lives in India.

Malnutrition 795 million people in the world do not have enough food to survive. About one in nine people on earth have not enough food to survive.

Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five affecting 3.1 million children each year.

Every minute 6 children die due to poor nutrition globally.

One in four of the world’s children are stunted.

Majority of the world’s hungry people live in developing countries, where 13 percent of the population is undernourished.

One out of six children — roughly 100 million — in developing countries is underweight.

In developing countries, the proportion is rise to one in three.

66 million primary school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world, with 23 million in Africa alone.

WFP calculates that US$3.2 billion is needed per year to reach all 66 million hungry school-age children.[12]

One third (30%) of the world’s malnourished children live in India

Of the total children (under five-year age)

Almost half (48%) are stunted[13],

Almost half (43%) are underweight[14].

Nearly one fifth (20%) are wasted[15].

More than three fourth (79.2%) are anemic.[16]

Under-nutrition is higher in rural areas and is strongly correlated with the level of maternal education showing a two-fold difference between non-educated mothers and 10-year and above educated mothers.

Children from scheduled tribes have the poorest nutritional status on almost every measure and the high prevalence of wasting in this group (28%) is of concern.

India has the highest number (of 7.4 million) low birth weight babies per year.[17]

Less than one third children (23 million of 80 million children attending Anganwadi) are malnourished and underweight.[18]

Only a quarter (24%) receive supplementary foods through ICDS.

State-wise data for under-weight children. In Bihar, the proportion of under-weight children is nearly 50%. Andhra Pradesh (37%), Uttar Pradesh (36%), Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh (both 32%)[19]

Child marriage Worldwide, more than 700 million women alive today were married before their 18th birthday. More than one in three (about 250 million) entered in the union before age 15.[20]

If current levels of child marriages hold, 14.2 million girls annually or 39 000 daily will get married. It is speculated that 140 million girls being married before their 18th birthday between 2011 and 2020.[21]

The largest number of child brides reside in South Asia.[22]

With 42% of girls married before 18, South Asia is home to almost half of the world’s child brides.[23]

India has the highest number of child brides in the world. Of the total child brides in Asia, one in three lives in India.

17.2 million people (10*-19 years age) in India were reported married in 2011. Of these 13 million were girls (75%).

3 million children of 10-14 year age group were recorded married in Census 2011. Of these almost two-third were girls (1.8 million).

It is estimated that almost half of (47%) girls in India are married before their 18th birthday.[24]

* No child marriage case was recorded for below 10 year age in Census 2011.

Education In the world, 124 million children between age 6-15 are not in school.

Almost 65 million adolescents between the ages of 12 to 15 years old were denied their right to an education[25]. This shows 1 out of 6 adolescents is not in school.

59 million children of primary education that were out of school. This means that 1 in 11 children does not complete primary education.

More than 84 million children in between 5 and 18 year age group were out of school/not attending school wherein two-third of them (63 million) never went to any school in their life time.[26]

Almost 1 in 5 children of school-going age is out of school/not attending school in our country.

Of the school going age children, 41% of boys and 53% of girls never went to schools.[27]

Children covered under RTE (6-14 years age group), 42.7 million are out of school/no attending schools, of these more than three-fourth (33 million) never went to school.[28]

Out of every 100 children, only 32 children finish their school education age-appropriately.[29]

Age group of India’s Children[30]
The children’s population (below 18 years) is 444 million. The figures show that almost one third child population lies in the 0-5 years age group. More than half falls in under 15 age group.
Children malnutrition data[31]
Undernutrition contributes to nearly half of all deaths in children under 5 and is widespread in Asia and Africa. Nearly half of all deaths in children under 5 are attributable to undernutrition. This translates into the unnecessary loss of about 3 million young lives a year.

Child Death due to disease

Child Marriage


[1] http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/unpp/p2k0data.asp

[2] ORGI (2011), Census of India 2011, Table-C3, Government of India

[3] www.unicef.org/sitan/files/SitAn_India_May_2011.pdf

[4] www.who.int/gho/child_health/mortality/neonatal_infant_text/en/

[5] ibid

[6] CIA World Factbook (accessed on 03/10/2016)

[7] http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/e (accessed on 03/10/2016)

[8] http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/1/Maternal-Health#sthash.HjzWI3d3.dpuf (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[9] http://www.unicef.org/mdg/childmortality.html (accessed on 03/10/2016)

[10] http://www.unicef.org/media/media_68359.html (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[11] http://www.tbfacts.org/tb-statistics-india/#sthash.IJssOl4q.dpuf (accessed on 06/10/2016)

[12] https://www.wfp.org/hunger/stats (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[13] Stunted – too short for their age

[14] Underweight – too thin for their age

[15] Wasted – an abnormally low weight for the child’s height

[16] http://motherchildnutrition.org/india/overview-india.html (accessed on 03/10/2016)

[17] unicef.in/Story/1124/Nutrition

[18] A status report on the anganwadi (day care center) programme, officially known as ICDS published in 2014 (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/2-3-crore-children-in-India-malnourished-Report/articleshow/39582261.cms) (accessed on 18-11-2016).

[19] A status report on the anganwadi (day care center) programme, officially known as ICDS published in 2014 (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/2-3-crore-children-in-India-malnourished-Report/articleshow/39582261.cms) (accessed on 18-11-2016).

[20] https://www.unicef.org/media/files/Child_Marriage_Report_7_17_LR..pdf

[21] http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/3/child-marriages-39000-every-day-more-than-140-million-girls-will-marry-between-2011-and-2020

[22] http://www.icrw.org/child-marriage-facts-and-figures (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[23] Op cit 20.

[24] http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/child-marriage/india/ (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[25] https://www.unicef.org/education/bege_61659.html

[26] http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/population_enumeration.html

[27] http://www.uis.unesco.org/_LAYOUTS/UNESCO/oosci-data-tool/index-en.html#en/IND/school-experience/girls-boys

[28] http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/population_enumeration.html

[29] http://uk.cry.org/projects/statistics-of-children.html

[30] Data are the most recent available estimate between 2010 and 2015; exceptions where older data (pre 2010) are shown are denoted with an asterisk (accessed on 04/10/2016)

[31] http://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/malnutrition/# (accessed on 04/10/2016)